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Missouri Law Blog Legal updates, news, and commentary from the attorneys of Baker Sterchi Cowden & Rice LLC

City of St. Louis and Multiple Illinois Counties Again Distinguish Themselves as "Judicial Hellholes"

January 20, 2021 | Lisa Larkin

The 2020/2021 “Judicial Hellholes Report” from the American Tort Reform Foundation has arrived and certain Missouri and Illinois jurisdictions again find themselves on this infamous list. The City of St. Louis comes in at #7 on the list while the trio of Cook, Madison, and St. Clair Counties in Illinois wins the #8 spot. The silver lining? Both of these rankings are down from the previous slots of #5 and #7 held by these counties, respectively, in the previous Judicial Hellholes Report.

Since 2002, the American Tort Reform Foundation has identified and documented places “where judges in civil cases systematically apply laws and court procedures in an unfair and unbalanced manner, generally to the disadvantage of defendants.” The stated goal of the Foundation’s program is “to shine a light on imbalances in the courts and thereby encourage positive changes by the judges themselves and, when needed, through legislative action or popular referenda.”

Coming in at #7 on the list, the City of St. Louis, Missouri, is singled out as being notorious for blatant forum shopping and excessive punitive damage awards, helping to earn Missouri the “Show-Me-Your-Lawsuit” nickname. The report also asserts that the court fails to ensure that cases are guided by sound science, citing instances where Plaintiff’s experts, whose testimony has been determined to not be based in science by other state court, have been permitted to testify in City of St. Louis courts. The report does see some hope for the City and the State of Missouri in general with the 2020 legislative enactment of several reforms intended to curb unreliable expert testimony and reduce litigation tourism, but cautions that true future success is contingent on the City of St. Louis Court’s compliance with the new statutes. The report notes that “some St. Louis judges have a history of ignoring both state law and U.S. Supreme Court precedent with regard to expert evidence standards, personal jurisdiction and venue, and damage awards.”

Number 8 on the list is the grouping of Cook, Madison and St. Clair Counties in Illinois. The report singles out these three counties as continuing to be preferred jurisdictions for plaintiffs’ lawyers “thanks to no-injury lawsuits, plaintiff-friendly rulings in asbestos litigation, and the promise of a liability-expanding legislative agenda each and every year.” The report calls Illinois ground zero for no-injury lawsuits, thanks in large part to the Biometric Information Privacy Act and the numerous expansive judicial interpretations of that law. The report finds some encouraging news in the Illinois Supreme Court’s June 2020 ruling in Rios v. Bayer Corp., where the court dismissed the claims of out-of-state plaintiffs for lack of jurisdiction because Bayer is not located in Illinois and does limited business there, the product was not manufactured in Illinois, and the plaintiffs experienced their injuries outside of Illinois.

The report also gives a dishonorable mention to the Missouri Court of Appeal thanks to a recent opinion addressing Section 537.065. This section permits a defendant to allow a plaintiff to obtain a judgment against it in court so long as the plaintiff agrees to only seek to collect the award from the defendant’s insurer. The Missouri legislature amended Section 537.065 in 2017 to require that parties give notice to the insurer that they have entered such an agreement so that the insurer can intervene and protect its interests, if needed. The report interprets a Missouri appellate court decision from 2020 as limiting an insurer’s ability to contest the policyholder’s liability or the plaintiff’s damages when it intervenes after the entry of arbitration award.

While there are some potential future bright spots for these Missouri and Illinois jurisdictions and their individual rankings are moving in the right direction, there seems to be a long way to go before we no longer see these local courts on the “Judicial Hellholes” list.

Parson's Pandemic Protections for Providers - Governor Parson Encourages Tort Liability Legislation During COVID-19 State of Emergency

December 21, 2020 | John Mahon, Jr.


On November 12, Governor Parson issued a written proclamation encouraging lawmakers to author new tort liability legislation insulating defendants from lawsuits arising out of the COVID-19 state of emergency that has existed since March. This effort is designed to allow these individuals and entities to continue to serve the public without threat of unnecessary and frivolous litigation. We have since learned that the Missouri legislature is not likely to address this issue until early 2021. Governor Parson seems to have reconsidered the timing for the agenda and directed the legislature to address this, not during the ongoing special session, but during the regular January session. The bill will be titled SB1.   

In the statement, the Governor explained one of the main purposes of this action is to assist healthcare providers who have gone well beyond normal duty to provide exceptional care to Missourians despite great personal risk to their own health and well-being by amending and expanding upon § 44.045, RSMo, to afford liability protections for healthcare workers who provide necessary care during a declared state of emergency.  Though not dealt with here, the Governor’s proclamation also identifies other organizations instrumental to COVID-19 response efforts, including product manufacturers and premises owners like schools and churches that provide fundamental societal functions. This potentially includes a new Section in Chapter 537, RSMo, to provide products liability protection for product manufacturers, designers, distributors, and sellers involved in bringing products to market in direct response to a state of emergency. It also potentially includes a new section to provide premises liability protection for exposure claims arising from a declared state of emergency. 

Why Is This Necessary?

The threat of COVID litigation is real. There have been an estimated 10,000 COVID-related lawsuits filed nationally. This includes hundreds of healthcare specific suits and is almost certain to continue well into the next year and beyond.    

The risk to healthcare workers is real too. As of December 21, there were almost 17.8 million COVID cases and more than 315,000 deaths in the U.S. Healthcare workers make up a significant portion of nationwide COVID-19 infections. As of July, there were 100,000 cases of COVID-19 infecting healthcare workers. By September 2020, more than 1,700 U.S. healthcare workers had died from COVID-19. Per the CDC, healthcare workers make up approximately 6% of adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Among those, 36% were in the nursing field, and 28% were admitted to an ICU. Sixteen percent required invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4% died. 

None of this is surprising considering healthcare workers are on the frontline of battling this global pandemic and, in doing so, expose themselves to great personal risk each shift providing exceptional care for their communities. They must deal with the challenge not only of exposing themselves to the virus, but also observing terrible suffering and outcomes of their patients, and doing this with limited resources, equipment and healthcare staff. The author of this blog believes prudent legislative action is necessary under the circumstances and likely to be helpful in mitigating some litigation risk for healthcare professionals. 

A National Approach to Liability Protections

Missouri is not the only state to consider such liability protections. Other states have provided this through executive order and/or legislative action. For example, the neighboring states of Arkansas, Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, and Oklahoma have already passed COVID liability protections. Many of these states’ protections afford immunity from civil damages for licensed healthcare providers but carve out exceptions for injuries or death caused by gross negligence, willful and criminal misconduct and intentional infliction of harm, and fraud. 

Although there was much discussion during negotiations for a federal COVID-19 relief package as to whether it would include liability protections for healthcare providers and other businesses, in the end, no such provision was included in the $900 billion program. Though not dealt with in detail here, federal liability protections are already available under the 2005 Public Readiness Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act, which authorizes the Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services to issue a declaration in response to a public health emergency. On March 10, 2020, Secretary of HHS Alex Azar issued such a declaration, effective February 4, 2020, which provides immunity to “covered persons,” such as healthcare providers, using certain “covered countermeasures,” including masks, respirators, and vaccines, that are necessary to combat the public health emergency.      

The Missouri Chamber of Commerce and industry stakeholders overwhelmingly support these protections. The American Medical Association has pushed for states to pursue liability protections for healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 emergency. However, this is not without criticism, with some suggesting such policies would protect irresponsible businesses from accountability and fail to protect the public.   

It is important to note that the anticipated liability protections parallel “good Samaritan” laws that have existed throughout the country for decades and afford qualified immunity from civil liability for healthcare professionals who volunteer their services as a generous compassionate act unless they engage in willful or intentional misconduct. 

We will continue to follow this issue and look for activity during the January 2021 general legislative session. 

Missouri enacts significant changes affecting punitive damages and consumer protection claims

October 26, 2020 | Douglas Hill

Missouri defendants will welcome several recently enacted changes to the manner in which punitive damages can be sought and awarded in most civil actions. SB 591 raises the bar for both pleading and proving punitive damages and provides additional protections to employers who might otherwise have been exposed to punitive damages for the unlawful conduct of low-level employees.

Most damages in civil lawsuits are intended to compensate plaintiffs for their losses, whether economic or noneconomic. But punitive damages, also called “exemplary damages” in Missouri, are different in that they are intended to punish civil wrongdoing and to serve as a deterrent to others who may be tempted to engage in similar conduct. SB 591, which became law on August 28, 2020, significantly changes how these damages can be awarded in Missouri.

Most notably, punitive damages in most cases now must be based on “clear and convincing evidence that the defendant intentionally harmed the plaintiff without just cause or acted with a deliberate and flagrant disregard for the safety of others.” This is a heightened standard from previously existing Missouri law, which required a showing of “complete indifference or conscious disregard for the safety of others.” Under the new standard, punitive damages are appropriate only if the defendant intentionally injured the plaintiff or did so by deliberately and flagrantly disregarding risk of injury.

The new law also bars plaintiffs from seeking punitive damages in their initial pleadings, a change intended to curb premature or frivolous punitive damages allegations.  Instead, a party seeking to assert a claim for punitive damages now must first file a motion for leave to do so, which will be granted only if the judge finds that admissible evidence exists upon which a jury could reasonably conclude that the punitive damages standard has been met. This roughly mirrors the procedures for asserting punitive damages in Kansas and Illinois state courts.

Employers are also protected under the bill from liability for punitive damages arising out of the conduct of their employees. Where plaintiff seeks to hold an employer vicariously liable for the wrongful acts of an employee or other agent, punitive damages will be awarded against the employer only if: (1) the employer authorized both the wrongful act and the manner in which it was done; (2) the employee was unfit to such a degree that it was reckless for the employer to hire and/or retain the employee; (3) the employee alleged to have committed the wrongful act held a management position and was acting within the scope of his or her managerial duties; or (4) the employer ratified or approved the wrongful act after it was committed.

MMPA Reform

The Missouri Merchandising Practices Act was originally intended to protect Missouri consumers from businesses that employ unfair and deceptive commercial practices. But thanks to Missouri courts’ expansive interpretation of statutory language that was often vague to begin with, the MMPA has been misused and stretched far beyond its original purpose. SB 591 makes a number of changes designed to reverse those trends.

Some of the changes are simple. For example, to prevail on MMPA claims, plaintiffs now must prove that they acted “as a reasonable consumer” would have acted under similar circumstances. Additionally, all MMPA claimants (or, in the case of class actions, all class representatives) must support their claimed damages with evidence that is “sufficiently definitive and objective” to allow their losses to be calculated to a reasonable degree of certainty. These changes—which should be part of any consumer protection statute—should provide at least some level of protection to businesses by deterring the assertion of frivolous claims and by offering a path to dismissal when those claims are filed.

The amendments also provide that any award of attorneys’ fees must “bear a reasonable relationship to the amount of the judgment” awarded to an MMPA claimant. Prior to SB 591, the act allowed prevailing plaintiffs to recover their attorneys’ fees, even where their recovery was nominal and any actual harm suffered was trivial. This allowed MMPA claimants to use the threat of ballooning attorney fees to deter defendants from litigating in earnest and to extract settlements wildly disproportionate to their actual losses (if any).   This change looks to curb those abuses of the MMPA.

The amendments also expressly exclude certain types of claims that are intended to be governed by other bodies of law. For example, the amended MMPA excludes claims arising out of the rendering or failure to render healthcare services, a change intended to stop the assertion of medical malpractice claims under the guise of this consumer protection statute. Similarly, a new provision in the law excludes certain new home warranties from the definition of “merchandise,” so long as the warranty documents contain and prominently display specified disclaimer language.

The changes enacted under SB 591—both to punitive damages claims and to the MMPA—will apply only to cases governed by Missouri law and filed after August 28, 2020. Any case filed before that date will be subject to the previously existing standards. We will continue to monitor how these important changes are implemented and interpreted by Missouri courts.

About Missouri Law Blog

The BSCR Missouri Law Blog examines significant developments, trends and changes in Missouri law on a broad range of topics of interest to Missouri practitioners and attorneys and businesses with disputes subject to Missouri law. Learn more about the editor, David Eisenberg.


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