BSCR Firm News/Blogs Feed Feb 2020 00:00:00 -0800firmwise Instructions in Railroad Employment Case Rejected Again by 8th Circuit Oct 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit has, for the second time, reversed and remanded a railroad employment case. Both reversals were based on jury instructions the Court deemed erroneous.&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Edward Blackorby was an employee of the BNSF Railway.&nbsp;He sustained an eye injury while on duty, but the existence and severity of the injury was not immediately apparent.&nbsp;Several days after Blackorby experienced eye irritation at work, a doctor removed a small metal shard from his eye.</p> <p>Shortly after the shard was removed, Blackorby notified his supervisor of the injury.&nbsp;According to Blackorby, his supervisors discouraged him from reporting the injury by telling Blackorby that he would be investigated for not reporting the injury immediately after it occurred.&nbsp;Nevertheless, Blackorby filed a formal injury report and was later notified by BNSF that he would be investigated.&nbsp;After the investigation, BNSF assessed discipline against Blackorby for a late report of personal injury.</p> <p>Blackorby filed a complaint with OSHA based on alleged violations of the whistleblower provisions of the Federal Rail Safety Act, 49 U.S.C. &sect;20109.&nbsp;OSHA determined that BNSF violated Blackorby&rsquo;s rights under the FRSA.&nbsp;These findings were challenged before an administrative law judge, but while the challenge was pending, Blackorby filed the present lawsuit in federal court for de novo review.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The case was tried to a jury, which was instructed that Blackorby was not required to show that BNSF had a retaliatory motive in disciplining him.&nbsp;The jury returned a verdict for Blackorby and awarded him $58,240 in damages.&nbsp;The 8th Circuit reversed and remanded, holding that the jury instruction was erroneous, because Blackorby was in fact required to show that BNSF acted with retaliatory animus.&nbsp;<i>Blackorby v. BNSF Railway Co</i>., 849 F. 3d 716 (8th Cir. 2017).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>On remand, the court held a second jury trial on liability only.&nbsp;This time, the jury returned a verdict for BNSF.&nbsp;On appeal, Blackorby challenged several of the trial court&rsquo;s instructions to the jury.&nbsp;The 8th Circuit again agreed that the trial court committed prejudicial instructional error.&nbsp;<a href=" "><i>Blackorby v. BNSF Railway Co</i>., No. 18-2372 (8th Cir. 2019)</a>.</p> <p>First, the 8th Circuit found error in an instruction stating that BNSF could not be held liable if it disciplined Blackorby based on an honestly held belief that he engaged in misconduct or committed a rules violation.&nbsp;The Court held that liability can still exist notwithstanding such a belief, (1) if the employer&rsquo;s retaliatory motive also contributed to the decision to discipline, and (2) if the employer fails to carry the burden of proving by clear and convincing evidence that it would have taken the same action in the absence of the protected activity.</p> <p>The Court also determined that the instructions were erroneous because they misallocated and misstated the burden of proof.&nbsp;The instructions erroneously described the &ldquo;honestly held belief&rdquo; issue as part of Blackorby&rsquo;s prima facie case and not a part of BNSF&rsquo;s burden under the &ldquo;clear-and-convincing-evidence standard&rdquo;.&nbsp;&nbsp; The case was remanded to the District Court where we anticipate the case will again be tried before a jury with modified instructions.</p> Agreements 101: they require - you guessed it - agreement. Sep 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>The Eighth Circuit has issued a reminder to those seeking to bind employees and consumers to arbitrate future disagreements: don&rsquo;t gloss over contract basics.</p> <p>In <i>Shockley v. PrimeLending</i>, 929 F.3d 1012, Jennifer Shockley sued her former employer under the Fair Labor Standards Act, alleging she was not paid for all earned wages and overtime pay.&nbsp;PrimeLending moved the district court to compel arbitration based on a mandatory arbitration provision contained in its employee handbook.&nbsp;The district court denied the motion because it found no agreement to arbitrate existed between Shockley and the company.&nbsp;PrimeLending appealed the denial to the Eighth Circuit, which affirmed the district court&rsquo;s denial for the same reason.</p> <p>The Court reiterated in the <i>Shockley </i>opinion that arbitration agreements are favored by federal law and are enforced as long as the agreements are valid, and the dispute at issue falls within the scope of the agreement.&nbsp;Whether parties can be compelled to arbitrate any given dispute is a matter of contract law.&nbsp;Thus, while arbitration is preferred, parties may only be compelled to arbitrate if they contractually agreed to be bound by arbitration.&nbsp;A party seeking to compel arbitration must therefore show, as a threshold matter, that a valid and enforceable agreement to arbitrate exists.&nbsp;To do so, the three elements of a contract &ndash; offer, acceptance, and consideration &ndash; must be proven.&nbsp;</p> <p>Like most large employers today, PrimeLending made its employee handbook accessible electronically, and as part of Shockley&rsquo;s required annual policy review, the click of a mouse on the handbook in PrimeLending&rsquo;s computer network automatically generated an acknowledgement of review.&nbsp;PrimeLending employed Shockley for 13 months.&nbsp;In that time, Shockley completed the policy review process twice.&nbsp;PrimeLending claimed the two e-acknowledgments and Shockley&rsquo;s continued employment with the company were sufficient to carry its burden to prove Shockley accepted the arbitration provisions contained in the handbook.&nbsp;Both the district court and the Eighth Circuit held these facts were insufficient to prove Shockley accepted any purported offer related to arbitration.&nbsp;</p> <p>The employment handbook contained two arbitration-related provisions: (1) a &ldquo;delegation provision&rdquo;, and (2) a run-of-the-mill arbitration provision.&nbsp;A delegation provision is an agreement to arbitrate threshold issues concerning the arbitration agreement, mainly placing &ldquo;gateway questions of arbitrability into the hands of an arbitrator.&rdquo;&nbsp;In other words, a delegation provision is a separate agreement within the agreement to arbitrate, which, if valid, mandates that certain issues be determined by an arbitrator rather than by a judge before the core dispute is arbitrated.&nbsp;When successful, the challenge of a delegation provision renders the remainder of an arbitration agreement open to review by the courts.&nbsp;Accordingly, the Eighth Circuit in <i>Shockley</i> first reviewed the delegation provision contained in the handbook.</p> <p>The Eighth Circuit assumed, for the sake of discussion, that the delegation provision at issue constituted an offer.&nbsp;And it then reviewed the record to determine whether Shockley accepted the purported offer.&nbsp;Under Missouri law, &ldquo;mere continuation of employment [does not] manifest the necessary assent to [the] terms of arbitration.&rdquo;&nbsp;While continued employment may in some circumstances constitute acceptance when the employer informs all employees that continued employment constitutes acceptance, no such message was relayed to PrimeLending employees.&nbsp;Thus, Shockley&rsquo;s continued employment was not evidence that she accepted the delegation offer contained in the employee handbook.&nbsp;Next, the Court entertained the e-acknowledgments as means of Shockley&rsquo;s acceptance.</p> <p>Specifically, the Court explained that acceptance is present when the offeree (here, Shockley) &ndash; the person receiving the offer &ndash; signifies assent in a &ldquo;positive and unambiguous&rdquo; manner generally by affirmative words or action to the terms of the offer.&nbsp;The Court outlined the pertinent facts: Shockley&rsquo;s initial review of the handbook was not conditioned on her offer of employment, she had no memory of reviewing the handbook, nor did the record establish she actually reviewed the handbook.&nbsp;The Court held that PrimeLending could, at best, show Shockley acknowledged the existence of the arbitration provisions and was thus aware of the terms of her then-employer&rsquo;s purported contract offer.&nbsp;The Court held that Shockley&rsquo;s review of the handbook and the subsequent system-generated acknowledgment did not create clear acceptance and therefore no contract was created.</p> <p>Following review of the delegation provision, the Court turned its attention to the arbitration provision.&nbsp;Because both the delegation and arbitration provisions are grounded in contracts law and involve the same set of facts, the Court succinctly explained that the legal analysis of the arbitration provision was the same as analysis of the delegation provision, and that both analyses suffered from the same fatal flaw.&nbsp;The fact that the Court could not find that Shockley accepted any purported offer was dispositive of both analyses.&nbsp;Thus, PrimeLending failed to meet its burden to prove a valid agreement to arbitrate existed and the Court could not compel Shockley to arbitrate her claims.</p> <p>The lesson for businesses seeking to compel arbitration of employee or consumer claims is clear: the &ldquo;offeree&rdquo; of the arbitration clause should be asked, in the first instance, to affirmatively accept the arbitration clause.</p> Obesity Qualify as a Disability Under the ADA? – The Courts are Divided Aug 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>The Americans with Disabilities Act (&ldquo;ADA&rdquo;) prohibits employers from discriminating against a qualified individual on the basis of a disability. In 2008, Congress amended the ADA, to ensure that the ADA&rsquo;s definition of disability was construed broadly. The amendment added a &ldquo;regarded as&rdquo; disabled component, meaning that applicants and employees who cannot prove that they have an actual disability within the meaning of the ADA may still be able to show that their employer regarded them as having such a disability. This broader reading provides obese plaintiffs a greater opportunity for success in disability discrimination claims; however, this amendment has created differences in interpretation regarding the extent to which obesity is considered a disability under the ADA.<br /> <u><br /> The Seventh Circuit is the Fourth Federal Appeals Court to Hold That Obesity, Alone, is Not a Protected Disability Under the ADA<b>.</b></u>&nbsp;</p> <p>On June 12, 2019, the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals joined the Second, Sixth, and Eighth Circuits <a href=";Path=Y2019/D06-12/C:17-3508:J:Flaum:aut:T:fnOp:N:2354448:S:0">holding</a> obesity must be the result of an underlying physiological disorder to qualify as a disability under the ADA in the case of<i> Richardson v. Chicago Transit Authority</i>. In&nbsp;<i>Richardson </i>the plaintiff, a bus driver who weighed over 400 pounds took medical leave due to hypertension and influenza. After he resolved the medical issues and was deemed fit to return to work, his employer required him to take an assessment because the bus seats were not designed to accommodate drivers over 400 pounds.&nbsp;The assessment determined that the plaintiff could not make hand-over-hand turns, he simultaneously used both of his feet on the gas and brake pedals, and he rested his leg near the door handle. His employer transferred him because of safety concerns regarding his operation of the equipment in question. He sued under the ADA, claiming that he should be &ldquo;regarded as&rdquo; disabled due to his obesity. The Seventh Circuit affirmed summary judgment for the employer. The court determined that under the ADA, the plaintiff must allege that he suffers from a medical impairment, and that obesity is a physical characteristic -- not an impairment -- and should not be regarded as an impairment. &nbsp;</p> <p>The Second, Sixth, Eighth, and now Seventh Circuit Courts are applying what they consider a &ldquo;natural reading&rdquo; of the EEOC&rsquo;s interpretative guidance. This reading concludes that physical characteristics, such as obesity, that are not the result of a physiological disorder do not qualify as a disability under the ADA. The opinion in <i>Richardson</i> suggests that if claims for obesity without an underlying physiological condition are allowed, interpretation of what could be &ldquo;regarded as&rdquo; a disability would become overly broad and open the court to results that are inconsistent with the ADA&rsquo;s text and purpose, including potential claims for weight-based claims from individuals with weight slightly outside of a normal range without any physiological basis as the cause, and making the &ldquo;regarded as&rdquo; amendment a catch-all for discrimination based on appearance, size, and more, none of which are disabilities the ADA was designed to protect. &nbsp;<br /> <u><br /> What Are Other Jurisdictions Saying?</u></p> <p>In the First Circuit case of <i>Cook v. State of R.I., Dept. of Mental Health, Retardation, &amp; Hosps., </i>the First Circuit held that obesity, by itself, should be protected without evidence of an underlying physiological disease or disorder.&nbsp;The Court took the position that the issue is a question of fact for a jury to decide.</p> <p>Likewise, although the Fifth Circuit has not directly ruled on this issue, a case arising in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana, a federal trial court within the Fifth Circuit, <i>EEOC v. Res. for Human Dev., Inc.</i>, held that severe obesity can be a disability under the ADA, without evidence of an underlying physiological disorder.&nbsp;</p> <p>Lastly, a 2018 Ninth Circuit case, <i>Taylor v.</i><i> Burlington N.R.R. Holdings, Inc.</i>, arising under Washington&rsquo;s state anti-discrimination law, involved a plaintiff who was rejected for a job because he was considered outside of the company&rsquo;s weight standards for the position. The Court certified to the Washington Supreme Court for guidance the question of under which circumstances obesity qualified as an impairment under the state law. Interestingly, although not arising under the ADA, the EEOC filed a brief in the case, arguing that weight is not an impairment when it is within the &ldquo;normal&rdquo; range and lacks a physiological cause, but may be an impairment when it is either outside the &ldquo;normal&rdquo; range or occurs as the result of a physiological disorder.&nbsp;The Ninth Circuit acknowledges that whether obesity is to be &ldquo;regarded as&rdquo; a disability under the ADA remains an open question in that jurisdiction.&nbsp;The Washington Supreme Court responded this year that obesity is an impairment under the Washington law.<br /> <u><br /> Guidance for the Future</u></p> <p>The Second, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Circuits &ldquo;natural reading&rdquo; of the EEOC&rsquo;s interpretative guidance rejects the EEOC&rsquo;s stance that obesity should be &ldquo;regarded as&rdquo; a disability. The <i>Richardson </i>opinion makes clear that a court can reject a federal agency&rsquo;s interpretation when they feel that deference to the agency is inconsistent with the regulation. However, employers should proceed cautiously when taking adverse action against an employee due to obesity and should ensure compliance with the law in their particular jurisdiction. The scope of obesity as a disability is divided amongst circuits and remains a question of fact in others, and the ADA may still protect an employee if there is evidence that an underlying physiological condition causes the employees obesity.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <br /> <em>* Jasmine Riddick, Summer Law Clerk, assisted in the research and drafting of this post. Riddick is a rising 2L student at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia.&nbsp;</em></p> v. Valley Farm Dairy Co. – A Retroactive Election? Jul 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>Effective 2014, the Missouri legislature amended certain provisions of the Workers Compensation Act, Mo.Rev.Stat. 287.010 <i>et seq.</i> A key goal was to make the Workers Compensation Act the exclusive remedy for employees who suffered occupational diseases like asbestos-caused mesothelioma. In <i>Hegger v. Valley Farm Dairy Co.</i> decision, 2019 Mo. App. LEXIS 816, 2019 WL 2181663 (Mo. App. May 21, 2019), the Missouri Court of Appeals addressed the application of the Act&rsquo;s new occupational disease provisions in the situation where the employer went defunct <i>before </i>the enactment of the amended statute.</p> <p><u>Facts</u></p> <p>The facts of <i>Hegger</i> are straightforward:&nbsp; Vincent Hegger worked for Valley Farm Dairy Company maintaining industrial equipment from 1968 to 1984.&nbsp; Over this time, Mr. Hegger had continued exposure to asbestos fibers in the equipment he maintained.&nbsp;&nbsp; Amerisure Insurance Company provided Valley Farm workers compensation coverage from 1983 to 1984 while Travelers Indemnity Company provided coverage from 1984 to 1985.&nbsp; Valley Farm later went out of business, in 1998.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>In 2014 Hegger was diagnosed with mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure.&nbsp;&nbsp; In March 2014, Mr. Hegger filed for workers compensation benefits. &nbsp;&nbsp;Specifically at issue was whether Hegger was entitled to the enhanced workers compensation benefits for mesothelioma provided for in the recently enacted Mo.Rev.Stat. 287.200.4, even though his employer Valley Farm went defunct long before the statutory amendment. &nbsp;&nbsp;The administrative law judge and subsequently the Labor and Industrial Relations Commission ruled that because Valley Farm went defunct well before the 287.200.4 came into effect, Hegger was not entitled to enhanced workers compensation benefits. The Court of Appeals reversed.</p> <p><u>The Statute</u></p> <p>Section 287.200.4 of the Workers Compensation Act provides in relevant part:</p> <p>For all claims filed on or after January 1, 2014, for occupational diseases due to toxic exposure which result in a permanent total disability, or death, benefits in this chapter shall be provided as follows:</p> <p style="margin-left: 40px;">(2) For occupational disease due to toxic exposure, but not including mesothelioma, an amount equal to two hundred percent of the state's average weekly wage as of the date of diagnosis for one hundred weeks paid by the employer; and</p> <p style="margin-left: 40px;">&nbsp;(3)&nbsp; In cases where occupational diseases due to toxic exposure are diagnosed to be mesothelioma:</p> <p style="margin-left: 80px;">(a)&nbsp; For employers that have <b>elected to accept</b> mesothelioma liability under this subsection, an additional amount of three hundred percent of the state&rsquo;s average weekly wage for two hundred twelve weeks shall be paid by the employer or group of employers such employer is a member of.&nbsp; Employers that <b>elect to accept</b> mesothelioma liability under this subsection may do so by either <b>insuring their liability</b>, by qualifying as a self-insurer, or by becoming a member of a group insurance pool.&nbsp; A group of employers may enter into an agreement to pool their liabilities under this subsection.&nbsp; If such group is joined, individual members shall not be required to qualify as individual self-insurers.&nbsp; Such group shall comply with section 287.223.&nbsp; In order for an employer to make such an election, the employer shall provide the department with notice of such an election in a manner established by the department.&nbsp; The provisions of this paragraph shall expire on December 31, 2038; or<br /> <br /> (b)&nbsp; For employers who reject mesothelioma under this subsection, then the exclusive remedy provisions under section 287.120 shall not apply to such liability.&nbsp; The provisions of this paragraph shall expire on December 31, 2038 . . .</p> <p>(Emphasis added.). The trade-off for employers is clear.&nbsp; Elect to provide enhanced workers compensation benefits and enjoy the exclusivity protections of the Act; versus potentially being exposed to civil lawsuits for your employees&rsquo; asbestos-related occupational diseases.</p> <p><u>Defunct employers can elect to provide enhanced workers compensation benefits</u></p> <p>In holding that Valley Farm&rsquo;s insurers <i>were</i> liable for enhanced workers compensation benefits, the Court of Appeals focused on the &ldquo;elect to accept&rdquo; language in the statute, and the three aforementioned ways an employer can accept the enhanced mesothelioma benefits (and thus become immune from a civil action for personal injuries based thereon):&nbsp; (1) &quot;insuring their liability,&quot; (2) qualifyingas a self-insurer, or (3) becoming a member of a group insurance pool.&nbsp; &nbsp;The Labor and Industrial Relations Commission held that this election required an affirmative act, possibly entailing the purchase of new insurance policies providing for the enhanced benefits.</p> <p>The Court of Appeals disagreed, holding that the plain language of 287.200.4 does <i>not</i> require the employer to purchase a new policy and does not state <i>when</i> a policy covering these enhanced benefits must be purchased.&nbsp;&nbsp; Rather, the court observed that because the workers compensation law required an employer to insure their <i>entire liability </i>under the workers compensation law, Valley Farms&rsquo; provision of workers compensation coverage back in 1984 retroactively satisfied the section 287.200.4 election requirements.&nbsp; This is so <i>even if</i> the subject insurance policies did not provide for the enhanced benefits now contemplated by the statute.&nbsp;&nbsp; The court reasoned that Missouri precedent had typically held that the insurer providing coverage at the time of last exposure (here 1984) was liable for workers compensation benefits, while the law in effect at the time of diagnosis (here 2014) governed the amount of the claim. &nbsp;Given this precedent, the Court of Appeals had no problem holding Valley Farms&rsquo; insurers liable for enhanced benefits that were not contemplated in 1984.&nbsp;</p> <p>The Court of Appeals criticized the Labor and Industrial Relations Commission ruling, observing that the Commission&rsquo;s requirement of an affirmative election would yield what it believed to be inconsistent results with regard to defunct employers or employers that had moved out of state.&nbsp;&nbsp; As noted, defunct employers would <i>always</i> yield a rejection of enhanced workers compensation benefits for mesothelioma because they were not capable of making an affirmative election.</p> <p>The court compared this result to the statute&rsquo;s treatment of occupational diseases other than mesothelioma under section 287.200.4(2).&nbsp; That section does not provide a similar election requirement for these other diseases.&nbsp;&nbsp; The court reasoned that in the cases of defunct employers, mesothelioma sufferers may not be entitled to workers compensation benefits while the sufferers of other diseases would be.&nbsp; The court found this potential disparate result untenable given the severity of mesothelioma compared to &ldquo;other serious but less virulent occupational diseases due to toxic exposure.&rdquo;</p> <p><u>The Dissent</u></p> <p>At the heart of the Court of Appeals&rsquo; majority opinion is the desire to protect sick employees who may be without civil recourse against a judgment-proof defunct employer. &nbsp;&nbsp;But this appears to be a results-oriented decision that effectively removes any requirement that the employer make an affirmative election, despite express statutory language requiring the same.</p> <p>In arguing that the Commission&rsquo;s ruling was correct, the dissent observed that the majority was playing &ldquo;temporal&rdquo; games interpreting the phrase &ldquo;by insuring&rdquo; to include any past acts.&nbsp;&nbsp; However, the phrase &ldquo;elect to accept&rdquo; connotes a present action.&nbsp; By interpreting the statute to allow past acts to fulfill the present election requirement, the majority rewrote the statute.</p> <p>The dissent also observed that the majority&rsquo;s reading of the statute now allows one to make an election by simply relying on a past act or abstaining from a decision, both incompatible with the ordinary meaning of the phrase &ldquo;elect to accept.&rdquo;&nbsp; The majority&rsquo;s interpretation also presents a problem when viewed in the context of an employer that is still in business but that has failed to add enhanced benefits coverage to their workers compensation policy.&nbsp; Per the majority analysis, that employer has still elected to adopt the enhanced benefits despite doing nothing. &nbsp;Finally, the dissent noted that the majority&rsquo;s reading would render 287.400.4(3)(b) meaningless, as an employer who previously had workers compensation insurance could not then reject the enhanced benefits available under (3)(a).&nbsp;</p> <p>While sympathizing with the majority&rsquo;s concern that numerous employees could be without recourse against defunct employers who never made an election, the dissent noted that this was an issue that doubtlessly was analyzed and taken into account by the legislature.</p> <p><u>Conclusion</u></p> Perhaps encouraged by the strong and well-reasoned Court of Appeals dissent, defendants are seeking transfer of the case to the Missouri Supreme Court.&nbsp; The majority decision appears to take substantial liberties with the statutory language used by the legislature.&nbsp; Under the majority's reasoning, the election contemplated by section 287.200.4 has two different meanings depending on whether the subject employer is still a going concern or defunct.&nbsp;&nbsp; Regardless of the ultimate judicial outcome, the legislature may want to circle back and address the specific circumstances raised in <i>Hegger</i>.&nbsp; Soon to Kansas City: Shorter Job Applications Jun 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>The Kansas City, Missouri City Council has unanimously passed an <a href="">ordinance</a> banning private employers in the City from asking job applicants about their salary history.</p> <p>Last year, KCMO passed a similar resolution banning the City from requesting salary history information from persons applying for city positions. Starting October 31, 2019, that ban will extend to all employers in Kansas City with six or more employees. The ordinance will ban employers from requesting salary history information, relying upon it, or discriminating against job applicants who do not provide it. &ldquo;Salary history&rdquo; includes &ldquo;current or prior wages, benefits, or other compensation.&rdquo; The ban applies to all conversations between employers and applicants, and includes public record searches. Violations will be punishable by a fine of as much as $500 or up to 180 days in jail.</p> <p>Of course, the ordinance comes with exceptions. The ban does not apply to the following:</p> <ul> <li>Applicants for internal transfer or promotion with their current employer;</li> <li>An applicant&rsquo;s voluntary and unprompted disclosure of salary history information;</li> <li>Salary history inadvertently disclosed during an employer&rsquo;s attempt to verify an applicant&rsquo;s disclosure of non-salary related information or conduct a background check, so long as the information is not relied upon for purposes of determining the applicant&rsquo;s compensation.</li> <li>Employee positions for which salary, benefits, or other compensation are determined pursuant to procedures established by collective bargaining; and</li> <li>Applicants who are rehired by an employer within five years of termination if the employer already possesses salary information from the applicant&rsquo;s prior employment.</li> </ul> <p>The explicit goal of the new ordinance is to help narrow the gender pay gap. While women nationwide earn roughly 80% of every dollar their male counterparts earn, women in Missouri and Kansas earn roughly 78% and 77%, respectively. In Kansas City, the gender pay gap is almost 22%, which is one of worst wage divides among major U.S. cities.&nbsp;</p> <p>The ordinance will undoubtedly benefit male applicants as well. Wage history has long been used by employers to set the compensation for new hires. However, requiring the disclosure of prior wages creates bias and can cause many applicants, both men and women, to feel stuck in their social class with a capped earning capacity. With the new ordinance, applicants&rsquo; wage history will no longer follow them into job interviews. Hiring will instead be about the job duties and the applicant&rsquo;s skill set.</p> Kansas City is not the first to enact a salary history ban. In the last several years, many other states and municipalities have enacted similar bans, including California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Oregon, Vermont, New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Court Holds Plaintiff's Failure to Include Allegations Later Sued Upon, in Her Charge of Discrimination, Is Not "Jurisdictional" Jun 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>We would have thought that every lawyer who took Employment Law 101 in law school learned that:</p> <p style="margin-left: 40px;">(1) A plaintiff who files a lawsuit alleging violation of a federal employment law statute like Title VII, or its state law counterpart, must exhaust administrative remedies by filing a charge of discrimination with the EEOC or the state equal employment agency;</p> <p style="margin-left: 40px;">(2) Failure to do so can lead to dismissal of the claim; and</p> <p style="margin-left: 40px;">(3) It is incumbent upon defense counsel to point out a Plaintiff&rsquo;s failure to exhaust.</p> <p>But perhaps the third point was not so obvious. On June 3, 2019, the U.S. Supreme Court in <i>Fort Bend County v. Davis, </i>affirmed a Fifth Circuit ruling, and <a href="">held</a> that where a Plaintiff alleged sexual harassment and retaliation in her EEOC charge, but did not properly include a claim for religious discrimination, the religious discrimination claim could still go forward, because the defendant has not raised her failure to include this in her charge as a defense, and rather waited until years into the litigation to first bring up the issue.</p> <p>In a unanimous decision by Justice Ginsburg, the Court ruled that Title VII&rsquo;s charge-filing precondition to suit is not a &ldquo;jurisdictional&rdquo; requirement that can be raised at any stage of a proceeding; rather, is it a procedural prescription that is mandatory and can lead to dismissal if timely raised, but subject to forfeiture if tardily asserted.&nbsp;In other words, it is a claim-processing rule that a plaintiff is required to follow, but whose breach must be properly asserted by a defendant.</p> <p><u>Practice tip for defense counsel:</u>&nbsp;Don&rsquo;t be stupid.&nbsp;When a court case is filed, compare the charge of discrimination and the Complaint with the utmost care.&nbsp;If the Complaint alleges claims or conduct that were not within the scope of the charge, raise the defense that the plaintiff has failed to exhaust administrative remedies as to those claims.</p> Strikes Another Blow to Class-Action Claims, Favoring Individual Arbitration May 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>A divided United States Supreme Court recently handed down the latest in a series of wins for employers, manufacturers, retailers, and other businesses looking to use arbitration as a means to mitigate the risks of possible class-action litigation. This time, in <a href=""><i>Lamps Plus, Inc. v. Varela</i></a>, the Supreme Court overturned the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, finding that an employer could not be compelled to arbitrate similar claims by its employees on a class-wide basis, even though its employment agreement was ambiguous as to whether the arbitration of similar claims be conducted on a class-wide basis, instead of individually.&nbsp;</p> <p><b>I.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </b><b>A clear, albeit controversial, trend in favor of individual arbitration</b></p> <p>Arbitration agreements, which are strongly favored under the Federal Arbitration Act (&ldquo;FAA&rdquo;), can be a powerful tool for potential class-action defendants, both to mitigate the risks of potential exposure and to make those risks more predictable.&nbsp;But a contract is only useful to the extent it can be enforced.&nbsp;Fortunately for potential defendants, there has been a string of Supreme Court decisions in recent years empowering businesses to use arbitration clauses to narrowly define the procedures by which class-wide claims can be asserted.&nbsp;</p> <p>These decisions have been controversial, and most have been decided along roughly the same ideological divide.&nbsp;But there has been a clear trend in favor of the enforceability of arbitration agreements that limit or exclude class-wide arbitration actions.</p> <p>For example, <a href=""><i>Stolt-Nielsen S.A. v. AnimalFeeds International Corp.</i></a> was a 2010 case in which the Supreme Court concluded that silence was no substitute for the requisite &ldquo;affirmative consent&rdquo; to class arbitration, meaning that class-wide arbitration cannot be compelled based on an agreement that is simply silent as to the availability of class-wide remedies.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The following year, in <a href=""><i>AT&amp;T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion</i></a>, the Supreme Court found that the FAA preempted a California statute providing that any class-action waiver in a consumer contract was unconscionable and, therefore, unenforceable.&nbsp;This 5-4 decision held the state statute was inconsistent with the FAA&rsquo;s &ldquo;overarching purpose&rdquo; of ensuring &ldquo;the enforcement of arbitration agreements according to their terms, so as to facilitate informal, streamlined proceedings.&rdquo;</p> <p>Then in the 2013 case of <a href=""><i>American Express Co. v. Italian Colors Restaurant</i></a>, SCOTUS rebuffed another attempt to invalidate contracts that affirmatively waived the right to class arbitration.&nbsp;There, the Second Circuit had found a class-action waiver in American Express&rsquo;s merchant agreement to be unenforceable, on the grounds that individually arbitrating each claim would be prohibitively expensive, since the costs of the arbitration would almost always exceed the potential recovery on any one claim.&nbsp;On appeal, a divided Supreme Court found that this sort of practical analysis was beyond the courts&rsquo; authority and ran counter to the principle, embodied in the FAA and recent case law, that parties should be free to agree to arbitrate, or not, as they see fit.</p> <p>And just last year, in <a href=""><i>Epic Systems Corp. v. Lewis</i></a>, the high court&mdash;once again split 5-4 along ideological lines&mdash;found that the National Labor Relations Board had overstepped its authority by finding that the National Labor Relations Act&rsquo;s protection of employee &ldquo;concerted activities&rdquo; taken for their &ldquo;mutual aid or protection&rdquo; gave employees the right to pursue class claims and displaced the FAA in interpreting arbitration agreements between employers and employees.&nbsp;Recognizing that whether to arbitrate on an individual or class-wide basis is one of the &ldquo;fundamental attributes&rdquo; of an arbitration agreement&rsquo;s character, the majority held that class-action waivers are just as enforceable in employment agreements as in any other arbitration agreement.</p> <p><b>II.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </b><b>The recent <i>Lamps Plus</i> decision</b></p> <p>This brings us to the recent <i>Lamps Plus</i> case, decided on April 24, 2019.&nbsp;It arose from a corporate data breach in which a hacker gained access to the personal financial and tax information of 1,300 company employees.&nbsp;Many of these employees had been required by the employer to sign contracts at the start of their employment, each of which included a clause requiring disputes regarding their employment to be submitted to binding arbitration.&nbsp;The arbitration language, however, was ambiguous as to whether similar claims would be arbitrated in separate proceedings or together, on a class-wide basis.</p> <p>Frank Varela was one of the employees whose personal information had been compromised in the data breach, and he filed a civil lawsuit in the Central District of California seeking to assert claims under state and federal law, both individually and as a representative of a putative class of similarly situated employees.&nbsp;The employer moved to dismiss the civil case and to compel arbitration, specifically requesting that arbitration be on an individual rather than class-wide basis.</p> <p>The trial court granted the employer&rsquo;s motion to dismiss, but its order specified that arbitration would proceed on a class-wide basis.&nbsp;The employer appealed to the Ninth Circuit, which affirmed the trial court&rsquo;s ruling, reasoning that ambiguities in the employment agreement&mdash;which was mandatory for the employees and was drafted exclusively by the employer&mdash;should be construed against the employer and in favor of the employees&rsquo; right to assert claims as a class.</p> <p>The Supreme Court granted certiorari and struck down the lower courts&rsquo; rulings.&nbsp;Chief Justice Roberts authored the majority opinion and was joined by the court&rsquo;s four other conservative-leaning justices (Thomas, Alito, Gorsuch, and Kavanaugh).&nbsp;The remaining four justices each filed dissenting opinions.</p> <p>The court accepted the Ninth Circuit&rsquo;s conclusion that the arbitration clause was ambiguous as to whether arbitration would be conducted individually or on a class-wide basis.&nbsp;Even though the agreement never specifically mentioned class-wide proceedings, some of its language&mdash;for example, its statement that arbitration would be &ldquo;in lieu of any and all lawsuits or other civil legal proceedings&rdquo;&mdash;was &ldquo;capacious enough to include class arbitrations&rdquo; as a potential remedy.&nbsp;</p> <p>But that ambiguity was not enough to force class-wide arbitration.&nbsp;Irrespective of state-law principles that ambiguous contractual language should be construed against its drafter, arbitration remains &ldquo;a matter of consent, not coercion,&rdquo; according to the majority, so there must be an &ldquo;affirmative contractual basis for concluding that the parties agreed to class arbitration.&rdquo;&nbsp;Relying heavily on the <i>Stolt-Nielsen</i> opinion discussed above, the majority ruled that without a clear expression of the parties&rsquo; intent to arbitrate on a class-wide basis, courts cannot force them to do so.&nbsp;An ambiguous contract is, by its very nature, not a clear expression of intent.&nbsp;Therefore, each employee&rsquo;s claim was subject to individual arbitration, rather than a single class-action.</p> <p>In a scathing dissent, Justice Ginsberg lamented what she sees as the Court&rsquo;s consistent use of the FAA &ldquo;to deny employees and consumers effective relief against powerful economic entities.&rdquo;&nbsp;She found it ironic for the majority to invoke &ldquo;the first principle&rdquo; that &ldquo;arbitration is strictly a matter of consent,&rdquo; when employment agreements like the one at issue here are often presented on a take-it-or-leave it basis, and she decried the &ldquo;Hobson&rsquo;s choice employees face: accept arbitration on their employer&rsquo;s terms or give up their jobs.&rdquo;&nbsp;</p> <p>Justice Sotomayor authored a dissent of her own, in which she took issue with the majority&rsquo;s characterization of class arbitration as fundamentally different from individual arbitration, characterizing it as &ldquo;simply a procedural device,&rdquo; which &ldquo;an employee who signs an arbitration agreement should not be expected to realize that she is giving up.&rdquo;</p> <p>Justice Kagan&rsquo;s dissent focused on the authorship of the employment agreement, arguing that it should be construed against its drafter&mdash;the employer&mdash;under general principles of contract law adopted in every state, which are not abrogated by the FAA.</p> <p>Justice Breyer also authored a dissent, focused largely on the threshold question of whether the order compelling arbitration a &ldquo;final&rdquo; order was vesting the appellate courts with jurisdiction even to hear the appeal.</p> <p>This case fits the mold of recent Supreme Court cases addressing class arbitration, which have consistently affirmed the validity of arbitration agreements and pushed back on efforts to limit their applicability or enforceability.&nbsp;Although the dissenting opinions evidence just how controversial the use of arbitration clauses remains, the majority opinion further entrenches arbitration agreements as a bulwark against class-action liability.&nbsp;Given the current makeup of the Supreme Court, the trend is unlikely to be reversed any time soon.</p> Supreme Court: There Must be Sufficient Evidence at Trial to Support Each Alternative of a "Disjunctive" Jury Instruction Mar 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>The Missouri Supreme Court's recent holding in<i> Kader v. Bd. of Regents</i> underscores the importance of ensuring that each alternative of a disjunctive verdict directing instruction is supported by sufficient evidence at trial. Because the Court found there was not substantial evidence to support each alternative of the circuit court's disjunctive instructions, the instructions were erroneous and prejudicial. As a result, it reversed the $2.5 million verdict in favor of plaintiff Kader, a former Harris-Stowe State University (&quot;HSSU&quot;) professor, who filed claims of national origin discrimination and retaliation against HSSU under the Missouri Human Rights Act.</p> <p>Kader, an Egyptian national, came to the United States in 1999 to pursue her graduate education.&nbsp;After working on the faculty at HSSU while completing her doctorate, she was promoted to assistant professor upon completion of her studies when she received her degree.&nbsp; In a performance review several years later, Kader believed she received lower ratings because of her race, religion and national origin and filed a discrimination complaint with HSSU. &nbsp;</p> <p>Plaintiff worked at HSSU under a J-1 visa, which is a non-immigrant visa for individuals approved to participate in work and study based exchange visitor programs. &nbsp; A J-1 visa requires an employer sponsor and the facility where she attended graduate school originally sponsored her visa from 2007 until 2010.&nbsp; HSSU supplied information needed to maintain her visa while she was on the HSSU faculty and indicated it would assist her with obtaining a new visa when her J-1 expired.&nbsp; Typically, exchange visitors on J-1 visas return to their home countries for at least two years when their visas expire and then apply for a new visa if they decide to return.&nbsp; Kader did not want to return to Egypt so she filed for a waiver of the two year waiting period to obtain an H1-B visa and continue teaching at HSSU.&nbsp;</p> <p>While waiting to learn if she received a waiver of the two year waiting period, she applied for an O-1 extraordinary person visa as an alternate means to obtain work authorization.&nbsp; She requested HSSU provide documentation to supplement her O-1 application, which HSSU supplied.&nbsp; When Kader had not heard about whether her visa was granted, she contacted the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services and learned it had requested additional information from HSSU, but had not received a response.&nbsp; Two days before her J-1 visa expired, plaintiff contacted HSSU about her O-1 application and the request for additional information.&nbsp; HSSU denied receiving the request.&nbsp; The O-1 application was then denied and HSSU did not appeal the denial.&nbsp;</p> <p>Kader then did not receive the waiver she sought in conjunction with her H1-B visa request before her J-1 visa expired.&nbsp; Because she no longer had J-1 status, she was required to leave the U.S. within 30 days unless she obtained another visa.&nbsp;HSSU notified her that her contract for the next academic school year would not be renewed because she lacked a valid visa.</p> <p>Kader filed suit against HSSU, alleging race and national origin discrimination and retaliation under the MHRA.&nbsp;The jury returned a verdict in plaintiff's favor on retaliation and national origin discrimination for $750,000 in actual damages and $1.75 million in punitive damages. HSSU appealed, asserting that two disjunctive jury instructions were erroneous and prejudicial.&nbsp; Specifically, HSSU argued that the instructions permitted the jury to find HSSU liable for conduct that is not actionable under the MHRA.</p> <p>During trial, the court instructed the jury to rule in plaintiff's favor on her national origin discrimination claim if: (1) the jury found HSSU failed to do one or more of five listed acts, including HSSU did not appeal the denial of the O-1 visa petition; (2) plaintiff's national origin or discrimination complaints were a contributing factor to HSSU's failure to do any of those acts; and (3) such failure damaged plaintiff.</p> <p>Similarly, the other disjunctive jury instruction at issue on the retaliation claim also instructed the jury that it must return a verdict for plaintiff if (1) plaintiff made complaints of discrimination; (2) HSSU failed to do any one of five acts, one of which was not appealing the denial of the O-1 visa petition; (3) plaintiff's complaints of discrimination were a contributing factor in defendant's failure to do one of the five acts; and (4) defendant's actions directly cause or contributed to plaintiff's damages.&nbsp;</p> <p>The Missouri Supreme Court emphasized that for disjunctive verdict directing instructions to be appropriate, each alternative must be supported by substantial evidence.&nbsp; Such an instruction is prejudicial when substantial evidence does not support each disjunctive alternative because there is no way to determine which theory the jury chose.&nbsp; Therefore, there must have been substantial evidence at trial that HSSU's failure to appeal the denial of plaintiff's O-1 visa application constituted an unlawful employment practice under the MHRA.&nbsp; Because there was no evidence, the circuit court erred by including a disjunctive instruction that HSSU's failure to seek an appeal of the O-1 visa application in its disjunctive jury instructions.</p> <p>The outcome in this case serves as an important reminder to defendants that if the plaintiff has failed to introduce sufficient evidence at trial of some element of claimed unlawful conduct, any disjunctive jury instruction proffered by the plaintiff that includes the unsupported claim should be challenged.&nbsp;</p> Supreme Court Compels Arbitration, Finding Adequate Consideration for Arbitration Agreement with At-Will Employee Mar 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>In <i>Soars v. Easter Seals Midwest</i>, 563 S.W.3d 111 (Mo. banc 2018), the Missouri Supreme Court ordered that at-will employee&rsquo;s case be arbitrated and denied the employee&rsquo;s challenge to the validity of the arbitration agreement as a whole.</p> <p>As a condition of employment with Easter Seals Midwest (ESM), a charitable organization, each new, at-will employee is required to sign an arbitration agreement.&nbsp;The arbitration agreement provides that, as consideration for employment, the employee will submit all disputes and claims arising out of the employment to binding arbitration.&nbsp;In turn, ESM also agrees to submit all disputes and claims arising out of the employment to binding arbitration.&nbsp;The ESM arbitration agreement also included a delegation clause providing that the arbitrator and not any court had the exclusive authority to resolve any dispute relating to the interpretation, applicability, enforceability or formation of the arbitration agreement.&nbsp;</p> <p>Plaintiff Lewis Soars signed the arbitration agreement as a condition of his at-will employment with ESM, and three months later.&nbsp;ESM terminated his employment after he refused to participate in an internal investigation involving accusations against him of abuse or neglect of ESM&rsquo;s clients.&nbsp;In response, he filed suit against ESM in circuit court for wrongful discharge and race discrimination.&nbsp;ESM filed a motion to compel arbitration.&nbsp;Plaintiff argued the arbitration agreement and delegation clause lacked consideration and mutuality and were unconscionable.&nbsp;The circuit court denied ESM&rsquo;s Motion to Compel Arbitration, and the Court of Appeals affirmed.</p> <p>The Supreme Court, however, reversed.&nbsp;It held that arbitration must be compelled if the parties signed an arbitration agreement that contains a valid delegation clause mandating that the arbitrator has &ldquo;exclusive authority to decide threshold issues of interpretation, applicability, enforceability, or formation.&rdquo;&nbsp;Whether or not the arbitration agreement as a whole is valid is for the arbitrator to determine so long as the delegation provision, standing alone, is valid.&nbsp;In this case, the Court found that in the delegation provision both parties mutually agreed to arbitrate all threshold questions of arbitrability.&nbsp;&ldquo;Because neither ESM nor Soars retains any unilateral right to amend the delegation clause nor avoid its obligations, the delegation clause is bilateral in nature and consideration is present.&rdquo;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Significantly, and surprisingly, this is the Missouri Supreme Court&rsquo;s first opinion holding that referral to an arbitrator should occur, notwithstanding a party&rsquo;s challenge to the validity of the arbitration agreement as a whole.&nbsp;While the United States Supreme Court has made this same ruling numerous times over many decades, this was the Missouri Supreme Court&rsquo;s first occasion to consider the issue.</p> <p>Notably, the Court found that an initial offer of at-will employment was sufficient consideration for the contractual promise to arbitrate claims.&nbsp;This was a major point of disagreement for the dissenting justice, who would have concluded that the arbitration agreement was unenforceable because at-will employment, which by its very nature is no employment contract at all, can provide no legal consideration for the arbitration agreement.&nbsp;According to the dissent, because a fundamental component of the at-will employment relationship is the ability for either party to terminate the relationship at any time, there was no valid contract to support the arbitration agreement or the delegation provision.&nbsp;</p> <p>Going forward, the majority&rsquo;s decision should provide comfort to employers that, under Missouri law, their arbitration agreements with at-will new-hires are enforceable and may include provisions placing all claims and controversies into the hands, in the first instance, of the arbitrator, including all objections to the existence, interpretation, application, and enforceability of the arbitration agreement itself.</p> favor the Federal Arbitration Act, but some workers are exempt. Jan 2019Employment & Labor Law Blog<p>In New Prime, Inc. v. Oliveira, petitioner New Prime Inc. was an interstate trucking company, and respondent Dominic Oliveira was one of its drivers. Oliveira worked under an operating agreement that called him an independent contractor and contained a mandatory arbitration provision. When Oliveira filed a class action alleging that New Prime denied its drivers lawful wages, New Prime asked the court to invoke its statutory authority under the Federal Arbitration Act to compel arbitration.</p> <p>Oliveira countered that the court lacked authority, because &sect;1 of the Act excepts from arbitration disputes involving &ldquo;contracts of employment&rdquo; of certain transportation workers. New Prime insisted that any question regarding &sect;1&rsquo;s applicability belonged to the arbitrator alone to resolve, or, assuming the court could address the question, that &ldquo;contracts of employment&rdquo; referred only to contracts that establish an employer-employee relationship and not to contracts with independent contractors. The District Court and First Circuit agreed with Oliveira, and the Supreme Court <a href="http://">affirmed</a>, holding that a court should determine whether a &sect;1 exclusion applies before ordering arbitration.</p> <p>A court&rsquo;s authority to compel arbitration under the Act does not extend to all private contracts, no matter how clearly the contract expresses a preference for arbitration. In relevant part, &sect;1 states that &ldquo;nothing&rdquo; in the Act &ldquo;shall apply&rdquo; to &ldquo;contracts of employment of seamen, railroad employees, or any other class of workers engaged in foreign or interstate commerce.&rdquo;</p> <p>For a court to invoke its statutory authority under the Act to stay litigation and force arbitration, it must first know if the parties&rsquo; agreement is excluded from the Act&rsquo;s coverage by the terms of &sect;1. This sequencing is significant, because it means the court and not the arbitrator decides this issue, unlike other issues, which may be delegable to the arbitrator.</p> <p>The issue for the Supreme Court thus became whether the Act&rsquo;s term &ldquo;contract of employment&rdquo; referred to any agreement to perform work or applied strictly to contracts of employment. The Court held that Oliveira&rsquo;s agreement with New Prime falls within &sect;1&rsquo;s exception.</p> <p>The unanimous opinion relied on the Act&rsquo;s original meaning for its decision.&nbsp; Citing dictionaries, statutes, and rulings from the era, Justice Gorsuch concluded that &ldquo;contract of employment&rdquo; was understood to encompass &ldquo;work agreements involving independent contractors.&rdquo;&nbsp;At the time of the Act&rsquo;s adoption in 1925, the phrase &ldquo;contract of employment&rdquo; was not a term of art, and dictionaries tended to treat &ldquo;employment&rdquo; more or less as a synonym for &ldquo;work.&rdquo; Contemporaneous legal authorities provide no evidence that a &ldquo;contract of employment&rdquo; necessarily signaled a formal employer-employee relationship. Evidence that Congress used the term &ldquo;contracts of employment&rdquo; broadly can be found in its choice of the neighboring term &ldquo;workers,&rdquo; a term that easily embraces independent contractors.</p> <p>New Prime also made a policy argument that the Court should order arbitration to further Congress&rsquo; effort to counteract judicial hostility to arbitration and establish a favorable federal policy toward arbitration agreements. Justice Gorsuch stated that courts, however, are not free to pave over bumpy statutory texts in the name of more expeditiously advancing a policy goal. Rather, the Court should respect &ldquo;the limits up to which Congress was prepared&rdquo; to go when adopting the Arbitration Act.</p> <p>Finally, the Court declined to address New Prime&rsquo;s suggestion that it order arbitration anyway under its inherent authority to stay litigation in favor of an alternative dispute resolution mechanism of the parties&rsquo; choosing.</p> <p>Justice Ginsburg, in a concurring opinion, explicitly agreed with the Court&rsquo;s unanimous opinion that words should be interpreted as taking their ordinary meaning at the time Congress enacted the statute.&nbsp; However, she also reasoned that Congress may design legislation to govern changing times and circumstances, perhaps foreshadowing future disputes between judicial philosophies.</p>